Saturday, August 24, 2019
Research paper politics - Essay Example It soon became evident that the American colonies of the New World were more interested in slaves than gold, and the slave trade quickly overshadowed the gold trade. Dutch, English, Danish, and Swedish competitors weakened Portuguese control and in 1642, the Portuguese left the Gold Coast permanently although their influence continues to this day. Various European powers attempted to dominate the profitable slave trade. The Dutch West India Company operated throughout most of the eighteenth century, and the British African Company of Merchants, founded in 1750, was successor to several earlier organizations and became the dominant European power on the Gold Coast (Buah 2004). Portugal's control of West Africa was gone by the seventeenth century, and Angola was the only major area left under Portuguese control. Angola, independent at present, is strongly influenced by Portuguese culture and its official language is Portuguese. It is especially distinctive because of South African infl uence and white settler communities, as well as the harsh colonial style of the Portuguese. The area therefore has become unique in Africa. As in most Portuguese colonies, mixed race children hold a different status (Angola 2007). In addition, Angola became divided into three factions-capitalists, independent, and the dominant party at present, the Population Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA). Violence, hunger and poverty marked the end of the twentieth century in Angola with peace being achieved in 2002. Even though they have gained their independence, "class, cultural, and linguistic divisions still haunt the country" (Birmingham 2006). Although France traveled to West Africa as early as 1483 and the first West African settlement was founded in the mid-seventeenth century in Senegal, it was not until the mid-nineteenth century that the French were firmly established in Cte d'Ivoire. Cte d'Ivoire, like the rest of West Africa, was subject to European influences, but absence of sheltered harbors made the area less appealing. The slave trade had little impact on the peoples of Cte d'Ivoire. Its profits were in ivory, but a decline in elephants closed down the trade by the beginning of the eighteenth century. In 1904, French West Africa consisted of Cte d'Ivoire, Dahoney (present-day Benin), Guinea, Niger, French Sudan (present-day Mali), Senegal, Upper Volta and Mauritania, ruled by the governor of Senegal, who became governor general. Most of the inhabitants of the colonies were subjects of France with no political rights (Handloff 1988). Handloff continues his history of the Ivory Coast noting that until 1958, gover nors appointed in Paris administered the colony of Cte d'Ivoire using direct, centralized administration that left little room for Ivoirian participation in policy making. The French colonial administration adopted divide-and-rule policies, applying ideas of assimilation only to the educated elite. These elite were inclined to take on the culture of the colonizers, moving away from their African heritage, and the influence of French culture continues to this day. The French-educated elites, or evolues, embodied the "African
Friday, August 23, 2019
Small group communication - Essay Example That first group meeting allowed some frank discussions where we talked about what we wanted to achieve as a group, how we would achieve our goals and objectives, and what things we could put into place to ensure that we remained on track. Also, one thing that we did to loosen the tension in our group was to go on a fun outing so that we could get to know one another in an informal situation. We decided to go out to a bowling alley and get to know each other a little better. We did not even talk about the project that we had to do; the whole focus was on bonding with one another. I would say that the norms developing in my group are a good thing. We have a certain amount of respect for each other yet we can also get on really well too. I think that we are in the norming stage now because everyone is the group knows their role and what they need to do to contribute towards the groups success. My typical role in any group is to act more like a motivator. I am not really a leadership type person so I prefer to take a backseat role and let others dictate the agenda of the group. I will use my friendly personality to encourage others to remain upbeat and do what is required of them for the groups sake. My behavior is very much influenced by others in my group for this class. Because they are focused and driven to succeed, this has also rubbed off on me and know I share the same feelings. I have noticed that my work ethic has picked up as I see my fellow team members working as hard as they can to help the group. My behavior has influenced my group members because I have really tried to help them to relax. When we first started working together I noticed that some of my team members were really stressed. I wanted to get them to relax and be calm because a team can work better if they can laugh once in a while and joke
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Publius Virgilius Maro Essay Aside from Christianity there is no other force that shaped Western civilization other than the Greco-Roman culture. And there is no better representation of that period in history other than Rome and Publius Viirgilius Maro, also known as Virgil. A closer examination of Virgil and his works made many to realize that Virgil was a byproduct of events and it is the twin forces of the Roman Empire and Greek history that prompted Virgil to write. This paper will look into the two factors that influenced the writing of Publius Virgilius Maro. This can be done by looking first at the events that transpired before Virgil began writing and this means tracing back Greek and Roman history. The second way of knowing the connection between history and Virgils writings is to dig into his works and of course this means analyzing the Aeneid. It will be shown later that it is Roman history and Homer that shaped Virgil to become the writer that he was destined to be. Rome After more than two thousand years the world is still mesmerized by Rome. It is because of its legacy, it military prowess, and form of government. Rome was without equal when it comes to how it help shape Western history. Yet in the early days of Roman history there is not much to see. There is nothing that could make an outsider ascertain its potential to be a dominant ruler of known world in antiquity. Ting Morris traced its early development in obscurity and he remarked, Ã¢â¬Å"Rome began around 2,800 years ago as a few small settlements on wooded hills overlooking the Tiber RiverÃ¢â¬ (4). But then Rome began to distance itself from the Latin communities from which it was supposed to be a part of. What happens next began a series of development that will catapult this small community into the world map, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦the roman Republic conquered first Latium, then all of Italy. The Romans annexed much foreign territory to their own state, but they also established a system of alliances with all other states. This gave the Romans a vast reserve of manpower that allowed them to overthrow every major power in the MediterraneanÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Mackay, 40). A new age has come and a new military superpower was born. But when the Romans began to assimilate remnants of Alexanders Empire, the new European power came face to face with an ancient civilization whose insight into religion, politics, and philosophy was far ahead of its time. In short the Romans, Ã¢â¬Å" recognized something in Greek culture that was more impressive than anything Rome itself achieved, in spite of Romes unprecedented military successÃ¢â¬ (Cox). At this point Rome was all brute force. Yes the soldiers led by the Caesars were brave, strong and are very eager to make their mark in the battlefield but when it comes to culture, the Romans were barbarians compared to the Greeks. The Romans discovered an effective methodology in fighting wars and they even had the distinct advantage of knowing how to build an empire out of disparate tribes and nations. They were experts in campaigns that require traveling far from home and yet they lack one more thing. They did not have a good system that can be put in place after victory. This is similar to the idea that it is easy to start a war but the more difficult thing to do is how to end it. So when Rome began to feel the success of empire building the more that they felt the need for a way of life that will enhance their reputation in Europe while at the same time offer them an opportunity to enjoy life more. They found the answer from the sophisticated Greeks. Virgil The Romans had to learn from the Greeks and their history can be characterized not only by empire building but also by the why they incorporated Greek thought and the GreekÃ¢â¬â¢s way of life into their own unique system. Now there is none better who understood the need for assimilating Greek culture than the Roman intellectuals of that time. In fact, Ã¢â¬Å"Among the adaptors of Greek culture, none was more brilliant than the poet Virgil. He faced a formidable challenge. Everyone who encountered Greek culture recognized how much it was shaped by HomerÃ¢â¬ (Cox). This means that there is a great need to surpass Homer and if this is not possible then at least equal HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s genius. If this can be achieved then the Romans had done something which other Greek imitators failed to do and that is to provide a great explanation for their existence. A myth has to be created, a legend has to be made and the purpose for such an endeavor is obvious. There is a need for something that will hold the empire together. At the time of writing the Aeneid, Rome was again in the cusp of revolution. Julius Caesar was defeated by Augustus Caesar and so steps must be made to consolidate his power and to strengthen the arm of the new emperor. For a brilliant man like Virgil, times like this one is an opportunity that must be grabbed by both hands. Virgil proceeded to hit two birds with one stone. First he would write an epic that will explain the origins of Rome. He will do so by using stories that are already familiar among the people that he wants to see united under Augustus Caesar and during that time there was no other story quite like the one weaved by Homer centuries before. Virgil saw that epic struggle for good and evil; battles between heroes; and the self-sacrificial behavior of some heroes simply because they believe in something higher than themselves proved to be a formula hard to resist. Virgil was ready to accept the challenge. But it is clear from the beginning that it would not be an easy task. Aside from that Homer is a world unto itself. And as they say there is no way one can improve on perfection, the Iliad and the Odyssey are the blueprints for creating great epics and so what else can be done to make it better. Virgil was able to solve this problem by being inventive and by starting where Homer ended his story. When Troy fell, one of her sons went on to build another kingdom. But then again Virgil cannot escape the past. Virgil could not resist using a successful formula. As they say there is no need to fix what was broken. Judging from the power of the Iliad and the Odyssey to move people it is almost impossible not to use the same method and technique of telling a great story. And so Virgil copied many ideas from Homer. In the introduction to the Aeneid Levi Robert pointed out that: Virgil borrowed from Homer a great many items: his verse form, the division into twelve books, mythology, many episodes and similes. In the Aeneid Venus doubles for Nausicaa, Dido for Calypso and Circe, and Drances for Thersites. The funeral games the desecent into Hades, where Aeneas meets Dido as Odysseus met Ajax, the prophecy of Anchises, the catalogue of ships, Turnus attempt to burn them, a broken truce Ã¢â¬ ¦ a quarrel of two Italian leaders Ã¢â¬ ¦ and a final single combat (Robert, xiii). Aeneid The Aeneid is basically the story of Aeneas, the god-like leader of a band of Trojan refugees fleeing to Italy after the fall of Troy. In the beginning, Aeneas built a fleet with the goal in mind of settling in a foreign land and to finally establish a new nation of Trojans. In VirgilÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, he wanted the world to understand the basis for the establishment of the Roman Empire. And there is nothing as perfect as that. Hornstein, Percy and BrownÃ¢â¬â¢s book, The ReaderÃ¢â¬â¢s Companion to World Literature, was very helpful in understanding the context from which Virgils Aeneid was written, and they said that it was written at a time of conflict. Italy was ravaged by more than fifty years of revolution and civil war. When the long-sought peace came, a new form of government was fashioned from a battle weary nation. And with the new set-up, ultimate power was in the hands of one man- Augustus Caesar. It was during this time that the Roman Virgil began working on the Aeneid. Hornstein, Brown and Percy wrote: Vergil began the poem in 29 B. C. , two years after the battle of Actium brought this period of civil war to an end. He had long been preparing for the task. His purpose was national: he desired to glorify the Roman people by his theme and exalt the Emperor in the person of his hero. (5) Homer Putnam acknowledge that Virgil is under the towering shadow of Homer when he made this judgment, Ã¢â¬Å"Homer himself, against whose essential insights into humanity, VirgilÃ¢â¬â¢s own achievement will always be measured. Ã¢â¬ HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s success allowed him to set the standard upon which others who will come after him will be forced to measure up. Allen Mandelbaum tells of how his previous study prevented him from fully appreciating VirgilÃ¢â¬â¢s works and he said, Ã¢â¬Å"One was a tag line of mark Van Doren that echoed through my youth with tenacious resonance: Ã¢â¬ËHomer is a world; Virgil, a styleÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬ It also did not help that the critics saw Virgil as copying Homer, Gaskell said, Ã¢â¬Å"The overall plan of VirgilÃ¢â¬â¢s epic was plainly Homeric, with its main elements reversed: now the odyssey of the man comes first and the armed fighting follows it: but the Homeric parallels are many and obvious. Ã¢â¬ (161). The only major difference was that Homer was illiterate and therefore had to express the beauty of his poetry in oral reform. On the other hand Virgil was literate and he could study Homers Iliad and Odyssey in written form as well as compose his own epic and was able to write it down. This explains the difference in style but all the more strengthens the view that Virgil was strongly influenced by Homer. Conclusion Now the pieces of the puzzle begin to fall down into its proper places and one can now see the bigger picture. It was mentioned earlier that it was in 168 BC when the Romans began to conquer the remnants of Alexanders Empire and it is through the conquest of former Greek states that the Romans saw first hand the beauty that was Greece. In short the highly militaristic Romans lacked the cultural refinements that one can find in abundance in Greek societies. It is through the process of incorporating Greek culture into the Romans way of life that they rediscovered the power of Homeric poetry. It took the genius of Virgil to use Homers works and use it as the foundation for his own epic. And so in 29 BC Virgil began writing the Aeneid with the purpose of emulating what Homer has achieved in Greece. Homers Iliad and Odyssey provided a sense of identity for all Greeks and Virgil was hoping to achieve the same results. But the desire to incorporate Greek life into Roman life is easier said than done. But everyone who will try to copy from someone begins by copying almost everything that one can see and the eye can appreciate. For instance the Romans copied the design of their temples and they also described their gods using the same attributes found in Greek society. But there is no need to worry because the Roman changed the Greek sounding names of their gods into Roman names for their statues. Virgil attempted to accomplish two major things when he wrote the Aeneid. He wanted to impress the new emperor (Augustus Caesar) and secondly he wanted to have a unique Roman epic that will help unite the people. Virgil was successful in achieving both. The hero of the Aeneid was behaving in much the same way as Augustus Caesar especially with regards to his conquest and the subsequent creation of a new nation out of that sheer determination to succeed. Now for the second part, Virgil was also able to create an epic that can be comparable to Homer. It is true that he copied many things from Homer and yet at the same time his stories were never simply a rehash of what Homer did. Virgil simply needed an inspiration to get going and he found it in the character of Aeneas whom Homer briefly mentioned in his work. From this little known character, Aeneid began to build a story that made the peoples pulse to race. It was indeed an epic story of battles, of struggle between good and evil, of heroes who most of the time failed to achieve their potential and sometimes die a tragic death. The Aeneid is basically an explanation as to the existence of Rome. For many there is a need to have that kind of idea, that kind of emotional anchor in times of trouble. And there is no way to fully understand the impact of Aeneid towards the people of Rome. But one thing is sure VirgilÃ¢â¬â¢s work was able to unite the whole of the empire and is instrumental as to why the empire endured for so long. It is now very clear that that Virgil was influenced by historical events and the circumstances that surrounded his life. If there were two streams where these influences came from then Homer is a mighty source of inspiration while the politics and warfare in ancient Rome provided Virgil with more materials to use. In RomeÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle to carve out a nation in Europe was evident in Aeneid where the hero had to travel and faced with numerous risks just so he can establish a new nation. It was Homer who provided much influence for Virgil. If Homer did not produce the Iliad and Odyssey it is hard to imagine Virgil able to make his own. This is not to take away anything form the accomplishments of Virgil but it would be almost impossible for him to write beautifully without Homer as guide. Homer did not only provide the seed from which Virgil will grow a powerful story, Homer also provided the correct format. And so putting it all together it is now very clear that Virgil was a byproduct of the events that surrounded him. Yet even before he was born, HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s influence and genius was already felt in many parts of the Western world. When Virgil was still very young it is easy to imagine that he was already familiar with the Iliad and Odyssey and no doubt the stories found in those epics help to shape the way he thinks. Works Cited Appelbaum, Stanley. Ed. Ã¢â¬Å"The Aeneid by VergilÃ¢â¬ Trans. Charles J. Billson. Canada: Dover Publications, 1995. Cox, John. Introduction to Virgil, The Aeneid. 2008. General Education at Hope College. 03 April 2008. http://www. hope. edu/academic/ids/171/Aeneid. html Gaskell, Philip. Ed. Ã¢â¬Å"Landmarks in Classical LiteratureÃ¢â¬ Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1999. Hemminger, Bill. Exploring Ancient World Cultures: Rome. 1997. EAWC at University of Evansville. 02 April 2008. http://eawc. evansville. edu/ropage. htm Hornstein, L. H. , G. D. Percy, and Calvin S. Brown. Eds. Ã¢â¬Å"The ReaderÃ¢â¬â¢s Companion to World LiteratureÃ¢â¬ New York: Penguin Putnam, Inc. , 1973. Knight, G. R. Wilson. Trans. Ã¢â¬Å"The Aeneid by VirgilÃ¢â¬ New York: Penguin Putnam, Inc. , 1956. Mackay, Christopher. Ã¢â¬Å"Ancient Rome: A Military and Political History. Ã¢â¬ New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Mandelbaum, Allen. Trans. Ã¢â¬Å"The Aeneid by VirgilÃ¢â¬ California: University of California Press, 1971. Morford, Mark P. O. and Robert J. Lenardon. Ã¢â¬Å"Classical MythologyÃ¢â¬ 7th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. Morris, Ting. Ã¢â¬Å"Ancient Rome. Ã¢â¬ MN: Smart Apple Media, 2007.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Evolution of white women in society Essay During the colonial chronology of the United States, many a historian pictured women as better situated than their more recent contemporaries (Mary Beth Norton, 1984). The value of women in the colonies was premised on the survival mode of the colonists during that time (Norton, 1984). To survive, both male and female were expected to pull their own weight in the community for the common good of the community (Norton, 1984). Due to this situation, the common lines of separation on the roles of women from the men were blurred greatly (Norton, 1984). As such, women in the colonies could engage in the activities that were also done by the men folk in the community (Norton, 1984). But what gave women a distinct advantage was that they could produce offspring, a very large contribution to the survival of the colonies (Norton, 1984). Also, the Common Law as it was applied in England was not fully complied with in the colonies (Norton, 1984). Hence, women were able to contribute more fully in the life of the colonies (Norton, 1984). TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s society bears little distinction in the role of women in the colonies. At present, women are doing many of the duties and employment that men have usually been pictured. Women can do what the men are doing to be able to cope with the increasing costs of living in the present economy of many countries. Most are successful in many of traditional endeavors of man. Sadly, there are opponents from both sides, one saying that women must be confined to their traditional station, while another seeks greater power for the women. What lies in the crux of the issue is the issue of equality for both sexes. We must treat women as vital instruments to the growth of a society, not only as objects to look and admire at. That aim can be achieved in terms of affording greater avenues for women to make that contribution, not locking them away from them. In this day and age, all hands count in the survival of a community. Reference Norton, M. B. (1984). The evolution of white womenÃ¢â¬â¢s experience in early America. The American Historical Review, Volume 89, pp. 539-619
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Do New Wars Pose Difficult Challenges Politics Essay Civil wars in todays modern world have become increasingly described as new wars ever since the end of the Cold War era due to a perceived change in the format of warfare and the emergence of war economies as central to internal skirmishes. Some scholars argue this evolution in warfare and intrastate conflict requires adjustments and changes to the post conflict reconstruction process due to new challenges new wars creates in comparison to the old wars of the past. This essay argues that there is in fact little evolution in warfare since the end of the Cold War and in fact many of the characteristics of the so-called new wars are in fact present in conflicts in the past. It is for this reason that new wars do not pose more difficult challenges any more than the already complicated problems associated with post conflict reconstruction; although some changes are necessary to adjust the course of development, it is in fact the growth and advancement of media and the communications secto rs that have led to an increased focus on civil wars that has pushed them into the public arena and granted them a new status. The first part of this essay will analyse the new wars thesis posited by Kaldor and outline the characteristics attributed to new wars; this will be followed by the convincing criticisms by many academics that argue new wars are not in fact new and assists the final section of the essay that discusses the post conflict reconstruction process and argues contemporary conflict does not post a more difficult challenge to the post conflict reconstruction process anymore than old wars do. The concept of new wars was first written about in detail by Mary Kaldor at the end of the 1990s, as she attempted to define the characteristics of low-intensity conflicts and distinguish them from traditional state versus state conflicts of the past. Kaldor argues that towards the end of the 20th Century, in particular in the post-Cold War order, a new form of organized violence has emerged, with blurred distinctions between war, organized crime and large-scale human rights violations (2006, pp.1-2). This thesis has gained considerable academic support as scholars notice the trend in the decrease of interstate wars and the increase in violence within states (Holsti, 1996, p.40). New wars are characterised as criminal, depoliticized, private and even predatory in their nature, whilst the old wars of the past were ideological, political and noble (Kalyvas, 2006, p.100). Kaldor thus believes there has been a progression in the nature of warfare and conflict since the Cold War as intern al conflicts become the norm and interstate battles become far less common. Kaldor argues that New wars can be contrasted with earlier wars in terms of their goals, the methods of warfare and how they are financed (2006, p.7); these differences will be outlined in the following section to explain the new features of new wars. The goals of new wars are based on identity politics, especially ethnic identity, rather than ideological differences or geo-political ambitions, and often occur due to the erosion of state autonomy and state failure (Kaldor, 2006, pp.5-7). Groups will claim control of the state or certain areas of the state in the name of ethnicity, religion or tribe (Kaldor, 2005, p.212). The Bosnian conflict during the 1990s is often depicted as the archetypal example of a new war as it displays this identity conflict clearly (Kaldor, 2006, p.33). Due to its ethnic diversity of Muslims, Serbs and Croats (as well as several other ethnic identities), it was no surprise that conflict arose between the groupings as the Bosnian Serbs and Bosnian Croats set about ethnic cleansing in an attempt to establish ethnically homogenous territories (Kaldor, 2006, pp.34-5). Furthermore, the attrition of state power means the monopoly over violence is severely limited, which leads to widespread skirmishes and conf licts as groups compete to fill the vacuum created through state collapse (Newman, 2004, p.175). The warring parties in the Bosnian war described themselves as states and made use of the former state apparatus in order to finance, resource and run their campaigns (Kaldor, 2005, p.214). Globalisation has resulted in a cleavage between rich and poor that results in conflict and structural violence (Berdal, 2003, p.479) and also a cleavage between cosmopolitanism and the politics of particularist identities (Kaldor, 2006, p.7). There is a growing them and us divide as identity politics play a more dominant role in how individuals see themselves to each other. This of course increases the inevitability and the probability of conflict among groups of differing identities The form of combat has also changed as guerrilla and counter-insurgency tactics become the norm (Kaldor, 2006, p.8), as the nature of conflict adapts a distinctively politically chaotic and military atrocious character (Snow, 1996, p.105). In the past, guerrilla warfare has aimed to capture hearts and minds of civilians and the population; however, the new warfare uses counterinsurgency methods of destabilisation, aiming to create fear and hatred amongst civilians instead, using this to gain support or at least prevent citizens from disobeying orders (Kalyvas, 2001, p.109). New wars appear to lack military order or discipline (Angstrom, 2005, p.8) which often leads to extreme violence and barbarism, directed in particular at civilians as a deliberate strategy (Mello, 2010, p.299). This strategy of civilian targeting rests in the aim to control populations, inducing destabilization and terror in an attempt to remove those of a different identity through violent and barbaric killings a s well as techniques of intimidation (Kaldor, 2006, p.9). The genocide in Rwanda or the random atrocities committed against civilians in Sarajevo highlight this dark side of new war (Snow, 1996, p.105), and in situations such as Bosnia, Somalia, Rwanda and Liberia, the military objective was the systematic murder and terrorizing of civilian populations (Snow, 1996, p.ix). Civilian casualties and forced displacement has increased in proportion to all causalities in conflict since the 1990s, highlighting this deliberative civilian targeting, further assisted by a blurring of boundaries between civilians and combatants as public authority breaks down as part of state failure (Newman, 2004, p.175). The final feature that distinguishes new wars from old wars is the form of financing that occurs; war economies of the past focused on using resources to defeat the enemy (Broodryk, 2010, p.11), whilst the new wars utilise looting, criminal networks, diasporic support and taxation of humanitarian aid to provide resources for their conflict (Kaldor, 2005, p.216). The simplest form of financing the war effort is through looting, robbery, extortion and hostage-taking and is seen in a number of contemporary wars (Kaldor, 2006, p.108). However, some war economies utilise networks of legal and illegal trade, arms and drug trafficking, corrupt governments and supportive diasporas that influence the outbreak and perpetuation of violent conflicts (Mello, 2010, p.300). The new war economies involve the fragmentation of the state as it cannot monopolise production and employment in order to fund their war cause (Broodryk, 2010, p.11). Resources are instead traded outside of the country to private companies lacking any interest in the conflict, only aiming to profit on the internal disruption (Broodryk, 2010, p.11). Kofi Annan highlights the economic struggle as central to internal conflicts: The pursuit of diamonds, drugs, timber, concessions and other valuable commodities drives todays internal wars. In some countries the capacity of the State to extract resources from society and to allocate patronage is the prize to be fought over (Annan, 1999, emphasis in original). This creates a globalized war economy in which rivalry between criminal groups occurs over resources or illegal commercial activities (Newman, 2004, p.176). The process of resource capture thus means there is no real desire of victory as groups aim to maintain resource profitability and the power they capture (Newman, 2004, p.176) the state of war is preferred to peace as it provides a cover for illegal economic activities by warlords and non-state actors (Melander et al., 2009, p.511) However, there are a number of academics that criticise Kaldors new wars thesis, arguing that many of the new features of new wars can be found in earlier wars, and that the differences between old and new wars are not as dichotomous as made out and are often exaggerated (Newman, 2004, p.173; Mello, 2010, p.305). This essay agrees with this to an extent a number of the features of new wars that Kaldor outlines in her argument are also present in wars of the past and suggest there is little new about modern warfare in internal conflict situations, as will be outlined in the following section. In terms of empirical evidence for new wars, Newman accepts that civil war have been more frequent than interstate war, but argues that both forms of conflict have decreased since the mid-1990s, with the exception of a spike in intrastate conflict in the early 1990s (2004, p.180). This, as Newman believes, shows there has not been an evolution of new wars in the post-Cold War period, and infact, the probability of country being in conflict is not similar to that at the end of the 1950s (Newman, 2004, p.180). In addition, Melander et al. argue battle severity (the number of deaths in battle) has declined in the post-Cold War era, whilst violence against civilians in civil conflict has also decreased (2009, p.507). Kalyvas explores the features of the new war convention, contrasting them to those of old wars, and concludes there are probably more similarities than differences, and that the new wars thesis is flawed in a number of ways. Firstly, he takes the argument that ideological concerns were the motivations of old wars, claiming that in fact, many wars in the past have involved high levels of looting (such as the Russian and Chinese Revolutions) and that many combatants actually made decisions to fight based on local considerations (Kalyvas, 2001, pp.106-7). Many soldiers are usually stimulated due to group pressures such as comradeship, respect and network ties such as family or friendship ties (Kalyvas, 2001, p.108). This can be seen in Irish Revolution and Civil War, where often the ideology at the centre of the war was rarely discussed amongst combatants and the conflict was based instead on family factions and old feuds (Hart, 1999, pp.264-266). Moreover, the depiction of new wars as lacking any ideological movement can be challenged; many rebel forces of contemporary civil wars have been stigmatised as missing any ideological motivations for combat, but in fact many hold an in-depth understanding of their own participation from a political perspective, as shown in Sierra Leone (Kalyvas, 2001, p.104). The portrayal of contemporary warfare existing through a move from chivalrous fighting to that of barbarity by militia and warlords is unfounded (Newman, 2004, p.181); the use of gratuitous violence can be found in old civil wars such in America, Russia and Spain, whilst the practice of child abduction to create child soldiers may be associated with contemporary Africa, but was common in conflicts in Afghanistan (during the Soviet invasion), Peru, Guatemala and the China (Kalyvas, 2001, pp.114-5). The horrific violence and barbarism portrayed in Kaldors new war thesis is also visible in past wars; the deliberate targeting of civilians can be seen in the Mexican Revolution at the start of the 20th Century, whilst World War II represents perhaps the most widespread cases of atrocities in the form of the Holocaust, the German advance into the Soviet Union (with huge civilian displacement) and the Russian advance on Berlin (with numerous cases of rape or sexual brutality) (Newman, 2004, pp.182-3). It is for this reason that Madame de StaÃ «l remarks that all civil wars are more of less similar in their atrocity, in the upheaval in which they throw men and in the influence they give to violent and tyrannical passions (cited in Kalyvas, 2001, pp.114-5). It is also possible to argue that modern intrastate conflicts do not utilise senseless violence, and that actually the portrayal of violence is defined by culture those in the West find the use machete as more barbaric than mass killings through bombings (Kalyvas, 2001, p.115) who is it to say which is the more atrocious and inhumane? Furthermore, Kaldor contends the violence rebel and militia movements use is not as gratuitous as made out, and in fact it is often strategic and selective Kalyvas argues the Algeria massacres, or the tactics used by RENAMO in Mozambique were part of larger strategies, whilst the forced amputation of womens hands in Sierra Leone can be seen as calculated to instil fear (2001, pp.115- 6). This is not to deny the acts as barbaric, but it certainly weakens the depiction of the violence as undisciplined and random. A case study that suggests new wars are not in fact new can be found in the Congo civil war during the 1960s; Newman argues this conflict closely follows the new wars model and identifies with several characteristics of Kaldors thesis (2004, p.184). The conflict arose after Belgium withdrew from Congo in June 1960, resulting in a political crisis as the centralised government broke down and disorder erupted. The Katanga province, rich in minerals, declared independence from the Congolese state after receiving support from the Belgian mining companies who were protecting their interests and promoting secession in the background (Newman, 2004, p.184). Conflict and struggles against the new leadership of the Republic of Congo was motivated primarily by material aggrandizement, particularly amongst militias and private mercenaries; at the same time, ethnic and religious differences stimulated the violence further, with some fighting orientated around clear political agendas (such as the unitary state against Katangan secession), whilst most fighting revolved around the interests of warlords and local factions (Newman, 2004, p.184). State failure and the breakdown of authority led to social disorder and the emergence of a war economy as mercenaries attempted to perpetuate conflict due to the benefits they gained not only from their employers but also from illegal activities such as arms sales (Newman, 2004, p.184). This case study therefore highlights the presence of new war features during the Cold War period, with state failure and collapse leading to social disorder and conflicting identity groups competing for resources. This suggests that new wars are in fact not new but have always been present; it is instead the emergence from the Cold War era that simply brought these conflicts to the fore and the expansion of media and communications that has led to the reporting of the internal disputes around the globe. The essay will now turn to the question of whether new wars pose more difficult challenges to postconflict reconstruction, and whether new approaches to state rebuilding after internal civil war are required. Although the essay has argued throughout that new wars are not completely new, it has also noted that some characteristics of contemporary intrastate conflict have evolved from those of the past, and there have been some changed in the forms of conflict. It is for these reasons that the post conflict reconstruction process must make a few adaptations in order to assist a states recovery after civil war. As Newman outlines, evolution and advancement in historical, technological and social-economic terms have meant the nature of conflict has also changed (2004, p.185), and therefore the reconstruction process will face some new challenges. In many post-conflict nations, the levels of crime and human rights abuses remain high as warlords and militia remain at large, making use of t heir illegal economies created through civil war the are weaknesses in the reconstruction process that mean identity politics and the new wars rebuilding programmes are not tackled head on (Kaldor, 2006, p.x). At a basic level, post conflict reconstruction must address a wide and complex range of challenges in states ravaged by internal conflict the prevention of future armed conflict, the rebuilding of effective state institutions, recreation of a social fabric, redressing of human rights abuses and the nursing of a health civil society are all central to the reconstruction process (Call Cook, 2003, p.135). The prevention of further armed conflict is particularly important in the case of new wars as it is essential to discourage warlords, militia and other forces from restarting and perpetuating conflict in order to sustain the resource capture that is common in contemporary warfare. This therefore means the war economy that existed during the conflict must be replaced by an effective state economy that has a monopoly of the nations resources and can prevent resource competition from accumulating and resulting in a fresh break out of conflict. Furthermore, the prevention of future confl ict is not simply a matter of removing arms access and taking guns from the combatants, but it is also the establishment of accountably, transparent, and participatory systems of authority (Call Cook, 2003, p.135). In the aftermath of a new war, it is essential for restructuring forces to quickly create a form of state authority that is accountable to the people and is capable of solving the grievances of those involved in the conflict. Kaldor stresses the importance for reconstruction to primarily involve the restructuring of political authorities and civil society, in the forms of law and order and the mobilisation of political groups (2006, p.145). The integration of all identities is also essential in order to remove the binary them and us dichotomy than can threaten to reignite ethnic or religious differences and disputes. The establishment of law and order requires disarmament, demobilisation, policing or training police forces, arresting of war criminals and the re-establishment of the justice system (Kaldor, 2006, p.146). However, it is not that simple; disarmament through buy-back programmes results in the handing back of average or poor weaponry whilst the high-tech arms are held onto (Kaldor, 2006, p.146). Furthermore, as new wars are essentially a combination of war and criminality, law enforcement must involve both soldiers and police in order to provide adequate security and authority. Infrastructure s uch as basic services, transport and production needs to be restored at both regional and local levels in order to re-establish the economy and reduce the need to humanitarian aid (Kaldor, 2006, p.147). Humanitarian assistance also needs to become more targeted in order to remove war economies and their siphoning of aid, and also to prevent over-reliance on aid that means the economy cannot be rebuilt. For instance, in Somalia, food provisions were high and numerous in an attempt to ensure all of those in need actually received the aid; however, this meant food prices in the state fell, creating an environment where it was no longer economically viable for farmers to produce food (Kaldor, 2006, p.144). Another example of aid problems can be seen in El Salvador; here, and IMF stabilisation programme attempted to provide monetary assistance for the country to reconstruct. However, the strict spending limits of the IMF provisions meant the state could not afford to build a civil police force and enact buy-back schemes for disarmament that was required by the peace programme to help reintegrate combatants back into society (Kaldor, 2006, p.143). In this instance, therefore, humanitarian assistance in post conflict reconstruction needs to become more targeted and utilise local knowledge for it to be effective at rebuilding after a new war. This essay has only touched on the surface of the reconstruction process after a new war, providing a basic outline of state rebuilding. However, it explains the need to adapt certain procedures uses in reconstruction of the state after a new war the need to retarget and develop aid provision, the importance of establishing effective authoritarian institutions to enforce security and peace, and the importance of reconstructing state structures that enable grievances to be addressed, civil society to be rebuilt, war economies removed, and the implementation of policies to prevent future state failure and conflict. To conclude then, this essay points to the need for perspective when approaching new wars and post conflict reconstruction each struggle will need its own unique form of reconstruction, and therefore the post conflict rebuilding process is a case-by-case thesis, with no singular set of reformation practices or factors and the presence or lack of certain factors associated with new wars is down to the unique contexts and mitigations of specific conflicts rather than linear historical changes (Newman, 2004, p.180). There has indeed been a decrease in state vs. state conflict commonly associated with the past, whilst globalisation, decolonisation and the following state building, and the resurgence of identity politics have all suggested a shift from warfare of the past and therefore the need to adjust reconstruction policies (Newman, 2004, p.180), and indeed some changes are required. However, it is perhaps more appropriate to highlight the rise and expansion of the media and communic ations as an explanation for the perceived changes in conflict many of the factors Kaldor outlines in her thesis are not in fact new and have been present in past skirmishes it is simply the prominence and attention these conflicts now receive from the media that has resulted in changes of perceptions and ideas of civil wars (Newman, 2004, p.179). The first section of this essay outlined the basis of Kaldors New Wars argument and the factors attributed to contemporary civil war; following this, the essay provided and agreed with the criticisms of the new wars thesis, highlighting the fact than many of the characteristics of new wars are not as new as Kaldor makes out. Finally, the essay contended that contemporary wars do not provide many more difficult challenges for post conflict reconstruction in comparison to old wars, rather small adjustments must be made in order to account for the rise of globalisation and the modern world.
The Scarlet Letter According to the New England Primer, a basic textbook used during Puritan times, in AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s fall, Ã¢â¬Å"we sinned allÃ¢â¬ . This quote very much applies to Nathaniel HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s characters in The Scarlet Letter. The main characters, Hester Prynne, Arthur Dimmesdale, Roger Chillingworth, and the Puritan society represented by the townspeople, all sinned. This story is a study of the effects of sin on the hearts and minds of Hester, Dimmesdale, and Chillingworth. Sin strengthens Hester, humanizes Dimmesdale, and turns Chillingworth into a demon. Hester Prynne's sin was adultery. This sin was regarded very seriously by the Puritans, and was often punished by death. HesterÃ¢â¬â¢s punishment was to endure a public shaming on a scaffold for three hours and wear a scarlet letter Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ on her chest for the rest of her life in the town. Although Hawthorne does not pardon HesterÃ¢â¬â¢s sin, he takes it less serious than those of Dimmesdale and Chillingworth. HesterÃ¢â¬â¢s sin was a sin of passion. This sin was openly acknowledged as she wore the Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ on her chest. She did not deliberately mean to commit her sin or mean to hurt others. HesterÃ¢â¬â¢s sin is that her passions and love were of more importance to her than the Puritan moral code. This is shown when she says to Dimmesdale, Ã¢â¬Å"What we did had a consecration of its own. We felt it so! We said so to each other!Ã¢â¬ (Hawthorn pg. 48) Hester fully acknowledged her guilt and displayed it with pride to the world. This was obvious by the way she displayed the scarlet letter. It was elaborately designed as if to show Hester was proud. Hester is indeed a sinner, adultery is no light matter, even today. On the other hand, her sin has brought her not evil, but good. Her charity to the poor, her comfort to the broken-hearted, he unquestionable presence in times of trouble are all direct results of her quest for repentance. Her salvation also lies in the truth. She tells Dimmesdale of ChillingworthÃ¢â¬â¢s real identity, keeping it a secret before, to aid in her salvation. Her pursuit in telling the truth is evident in the lines, In all things else, I have striven to be true! Truth was the one virtue which I might have held fast, and did hold fast, through all extremity save when thy good--the life--they fame--were put in question! But a lie is never good, even though death threaten the other side! Even though HesterÃ¢â¬â¢s sin is the one the book is titled after and centered around, it is not nearly the worst sin committed.
Monday, August 19, 2019
An Inspector CallsÃ¢â¬â¢ is a play about ideas, it contains thought provoking material the aim of which is social reform. But the Whole ThingÃ¢â¬â¢s Different Now ----------------------------------- Ã¢â¬ËAn Inspector CallsÃ¢â¬â¢ is a play about ideas, it contains thought provoking material the aim of which is social reform. At the start of the play this rich, middle class family think themselves Ã¢â¬Å"a nice, well behaved familyÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"respectable citizensÃ¢â¬ but some of their views are changed by a mysterious inspector who uncovers some disturbing truths about their lives. The inspector shows how each member of the household has contributed to the suicide of a young working class girl. This play highlights the problems and flaws in attitudes just after the turn of the century and that people can be wrong about many things including the future, themselves and their beliefs and prejudices. By doing so this play promotes the utopian ideals of liberty and equality and follows in the footsteps of the French and Russian revolutions. Set in between these two events it reminds us that people will always strive for a better quality of life and that history will repeat itself until we live in a perfect society. This play has a timeless quality about it and the problems of society that it raises are still present in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. It seems we as nation, or as a species for that matter, have still not learnt from our mistakes. We continue to ignore mistakes, fail to concede we are wrong and pretend it is not our fault or responsibility. We are a too alike to Mrs Birling and can not accept change easily. It is still the younger generation who lead the drive for social reform and changes in attitude, eco-warriors for example. This is a very socialist play but is not directly insulting of the richer classes, just critical of their ignorance. The play was first performed in StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s Communist Russia by the Kamery and Leningrad theatre companies in Moscow, August 1945. World War Two had just been ended by the atom bomb and throughout allied Europe soldiers began to come back home to a heroÃ¢â¬â¢s welcome for the second time in half a century. They had saved the world and did not want to return to a life of virtual slave labour. Workers and unions were demanding more rights and the years of war had weakened the class system. A change was required. Though not as violent as the Bolshevik revolution people were fighting old ideas and embracing new ones. They did not want another war. National patriotism had brought communities closer together. The Blitz and rationing had put everybody in the same boat and people looked out J.B.PriestleyÃ¢â¬â¢s play, An Inspector Calls :: English Literature: An Inspector CallsÃ¢â¬â¢ is a play about ideas, it contains thought provoking material the aim of which is social reform. But the Whole ThingÃ¢â¬â¢s Different Now ----------------------------------- Ã¢â¬ËAn Inspector CallsÃ¢â¬â¢ is a play about ideas, it contains thought provoking material the aim of which is social reform. At the start of the play this rich, middle class family think themselves Ã¢â¬Å"a nice, well behaved familyÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"respectable citizensÃ¢â¬ but some of their views are changed by a mysterious inspector who uncovers some disturbing truths about their lives. The inspector shows how each member of the household has contributed to the suicide of a young working class girl. This play highlights the problems and flaws in attitudes just after the turn of the century and that people can be wrong about many things including the future, themselves and their beliefs and prejudices. By doing so this play promotes the utopian ideals of liberty and equality and follows in the footsteps of the French and Russian revolutions. Set in between these two events it reminds us that people will always strive for a better quality of life and that history will repeat itself until we live in a perfect society. This play has a timeless quality about it and the problems of society that it raises are still present in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. It seems we as nation, or as a species for that matter, have still not learnt from our mistakes. We continue to ignore mistakes, fail to concede we are wrong and pretend it is not our fault or responsibility. We are a too alike to Mrs Birling and can not accept change easily. It is still the younger generation who lead the drive for social reform and changes in attitude, eco-warriors for example. This is a very socialist play but is not directly insulting of the richer classes, just critical of their ignorance. The play was first performed in StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s Communist Russia by the Kamery and Leningrad theatre companies in Moscow, August 1945. World War Two had just been ended by the atom bomb and throughout allied Europe soldiers began to come back home to a heroÃ¢â¬â¢s welcome for the second time in half a century. They had saved the world and did not want to return to a life of virtual slave labour. Workers and unions were demanding more rights and the years of war had weakened the class system. A change was required. Though not as violent as the Bolshevik revolution people were fighting old ideas and embracing new ones. They did not want another war. National patriotism had brought communities closer together. The Blitz and rationing had put everybody in the same boat and people looked out