Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Avoiding Ethical Impropriety:

Staying away from ETHICAL IMPROPRIETY: PROBLEMS OF DUAL ROLE RELATIONSHIPS INTRODUCTION While the essential job of an advisor is to give guiding administrations, advisors regularly expect further proficient jobs identified with their uncommon information and preparing. For instance, they might be advisors, master observers, administrators, creators, or educators. As private people, advisors additionally accept nonprofessional jobs. They might be guardians, football trainers, customers, individuals from the PTA, companions, sexual accomplices, and endless other things.In their assorted proficient and private limits specialists can contribute a lot to the general satisfaction of the networks wherein they live and work. At the point when an expert accept in any event one extra expert or individual job as for similar customers, the relationship along these lines shaped is named a double or various job relationship. For instance, an educator may likewise be the manager of one of his under studies/assistants, or a guide may likewise be a client of a customer/owner. Double job connections may happen at the same time or successively (NASW, 1997, 1. 6. c). For instance, an advisor has a successive double job relationship when she directs a previous sexual accomplice or a previous understudy. While not all double job connections are exploitative (can possibly make critical mischief customer or other), now and again the mixing of the guiding job with certain individual jobs or with certain other expert jobs can create genuine good issues. All through this paper this student will think about complexities of risky double job connections. The condition this student will concentrate on is schools and universities.Two contextual analyses will be introduced, one investigating some key issues of sexual relations with customers, the other investigating some key issues of non-sexual double job connections. This student will likewise apply the ACA code of morals all through this pap er. Four arrangements of guidelines in regards to moral administration of double job connections will be illustrated. Double ROLE RELATIONSHIPS INVOLVING CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Dual job connections are ethically risky when they include the advisor in an irreconcilable situation. As per Davis and Stark â€Å"a erson has an irreconcilable circumstance on the off chance that he is involved with at least one others requiring the activity of judgment for the others' benefit yet has an exceptional enthusiasm having a tendency to meddle with the correct exercise of judgment in that relationship. † For instance, an advisor's capacity to guide a customer might be antagonistically influenced if the advocate is additionally the customer's colleague. To the extent that a double job relationship hinders the specialist's capacity to make decisions promotive of customer government assistance, the advisor has an ethical duty to keep away from such a relationship or to find a way to defend cus tomer welfare.One conceivable way of managing a double job relationship including an irreconcilable situation is to educate the customer that the contention exists. Along these lines, customers are treated as self-sufficient operators with the ability to go somewhere else if and when they so pick. Be that as it may, while such a methodology will accord with sincerity and thought for customer independence, it may not the only one determination the ethical issue. The potential for customer damage may in any case continue in cases in which the customer chooses for stay with the relationship. Non-maleficenceâ€â€Å"first do no harm†Ã¢â‚¬ should then adopt priority.A further strategy targeting relieving potential for customer hurt is to make complete honesty to the customer and look for discussion and management in managing the contention (Corey & Herlihy, 1997). As indicated by Corey and Herlihy (1997), while this methodology might be more â€Å"challenging† tha n staying away from double job connections by and large, â€Å"a ability to wrestle with the moral complexities of everyday practice is a sign of polished skill. † However, the customer's capacity to â€Å"grapple† with the circumstance should likewise be taken into account.In circumstances where the specialist looks for interview and oversight to manage an irreconcilable situation, realism necessitates that the advisor illuminate the customer regarding such. Albeit various customers may react distinctively to exposure of this data, it ought to be viewed as what ramifications this plan may have from the customer's point of view. In the event that the specialist can't confide in himself (without oversight) to act working together with customer government assistance, will this antagonistically impact the customer's capacity to confide in the advisor in this or other situations?The insignificant presence of the double job relationship may itself present an impediment for the customer. For instance, seeing someone which the customer bargains for guiding administrations, the customer may feel constrained to treat the specialist in a way that surpasses customary client desires. The customer's discernment may then be a higher priority than the truth. Regardless of whether the specialist prevails with regards to keeping up autonomy of judgment through meeting and oversight, this may not make any difference if the customer doesn't see the circumstance along these lines or if the customer is in any case incapable to keep up objectivity.In a few circumstances, double job connections might be unavoidable. For instance, in a provincial territory wherein there is just one rehearsing advisor and one bank, the specialist's advance official may likewise be the advisor's customer. In circumstances where staying away from the double job is preposterous or not plausible, the advisor should then avoid potential risk, for example, educated assent, meeting, oversight, and documentation to make preparations for weakened judgment and customer misuse (ACA, 1995, A. 6. a).Viewed in this light, specialists rehearsing under conditions where unavoidable double job connections are likely (for instance, in little country towns), have extra warrant for reaching other equipped experts ready to give interview or oversight upon demand. Ethically tricky double job connections might be sexual or non-sexual in nature. Sexual double job connections remember ones for which specialists participate in sexual relations with current customers or with previous clients.Non-sexual double job connections incorporate (however are not restricted to) ones in which the advisor is additionally the customer's chief, colleague or partner, companion, worker, relative, or educator. While these connections are regularly avoidable, their tricky nature may go unnoticed. For instance, with an end goal to help a companion out of luck, an advisor may, with every single honest goal, igno re potential for customer hurt. Proficient and legitimate principles administering sexual associations with current customers reliably prohibit such connections. Legitimate assents may incorporate permit repudiation, common suits, and criminal arraignment (Anderson, 1996).According to The American Counseling Association Code of Ethics, â€Å"counselors don't have any kind of sexual affections with customers and don't guide people with whom they have had a sexual relationship† (A. 7. a). The National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics legitimizes its own disallowance against offering clinical types of assistance to previous sexual accomplices in light of the fact that such direct â€Å"has the possibility to be hurtful to the individual and is probably going to make it hard for the social specialist and individual to keep up suitable expert boundaries† (NASW, 1997, 1. 9. d) The potential mischief coming about because of sexual exercises with customers has been archived. For instance, refering to the exploration of Kenneth S. Pope (1988), Herlihy and Corey (1997) have noticed that damage may look like that likened to casualties of assault, battery, kid misuse, and post horrible pressure. These impacts incorporate â€Å"ambivalence, blame, void and segregation, character/limit/job disarray, sexual disarray, hindered capacity to trust, enthusiastic obligation, smothered fury, intellectual brokenness, and expanded self-destructive risk† (p. 4). The restriction against sexual exercises with current customers has additionally been stretched out to understudies and supervisees. For instance, as per the American Psychological Association Ethical Standards, â€Å"psychologists don't participate in sexual associations with understudies or supervisees in preparing over whom the clinician has evaluative or direct power, on the grounds that such connections are so prone to debilitate judgment or be exploitative (1. 19. b).There is, in any cas e, less accord on the topic of sex with previous customers. Albeit a few states unequivocally view sex with previous customers as sexual wrongdoing, other state rules just as codes of morals make special cases. For instance, Standard 4. 07 of the American Psychological Association Ethical Standards attests the accompanying: a. Analysts don't take part in sexual affections with a previous treatment patient or customer for at any rate two years after discontinuance or end of expert administrations. . Since sexual affections with a previous treatment patient or customer are so as often as possible destructive to the patient or customer, and on the grounds that such affections subvert open trust in the brain research calling and accordingly discourage the open's utilization of required administrations, clinicians don't participate in sexual affections with previous treatment patients and customers significantly following a two-year stretch aside from in the most bizarre circumstances.Th e analyst who takes part in such exercises after the two years following end or end of treatment bears the weight of exhibiting that there has been no misuse, considering every single pertinent factor, including (1) the measure of time that has gone since treatment ended, (2) the nature and length of treatment, (3) the conditions of end, (4) the patient's or customer's very own history, (5) the patient's or customer's ebb and flow mental status, (6) the ikelihood of unfavorable effect on the patient or customer and others, and (7) any announcements or activities

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Bill of Rights, 1st Amendment and Internet Hate Speech essays

Bill of Rights, first Amendment and Internet Hate Speech articles Loathe Speech is a zone in current society that has taken on assorted perspectives because of the changing guidelines of right social conduct, and the absence of exact enactment managing this subject. As of late the most discussed theme here has been the oversight of Hate discourse on the Web. This theme requires and is inciting genuine conversation as the Internet is up 'til now an obscure substance with regards to restriction laws furthermore, presents because of its characteristic characteristics of secrecy a test to law Controlling the Internet manages such touchy issues as encroachment of human and individual rights. I feel genuine new issues have emerged from absence of enactment of the web and change is essential to this situation. Guideline of certain Internet material is required to ensure the qualities the Bill of Right and the First Amendment advocate. The American majority rules system is one of a kind for the assurance of its ancestors to secure human rights at all degrees of society. The constitution has needed to experience numerous phases of improvement and revision be that as it may, on paper the pattern has consistently been to ensure all people and the residents of the United States from the abuse of the state or some other type of power without due reason' and the procedure of the law'. The Bill of Rights was detailed in the late 1700's and structured so that the forces of the national government were constrained. (Glasser, 1991) Initially comprising of ten changes a few have been included from that point forward. The Bill of Rights was anyway simply the rules, and usage on huge numbers of its guidelines didn't happen collectively in all states or indeed, even until a century later. (Glasser, 1991) The First Amendment expresses that: Congress will make no law regarding a foundation of religion, or restricting the free exercise thereof ensuring that the gover... <!

Sunday, August 9, 2020

Training during Pregnancy

Training during Pregnancy Exercise and Training during Pregnancy Home›Research Posts›Exercise and Training during Pregnancy Research PostsIntroductionHistorically, there were various socio-cultural reasons to encourage reduction of exercise for pregnant women. Such cultural reasons seek to reduce physical activity and working by pregnant women. There were believes that such the involvement of women in exercises and work could result into early pregnancy loss, or reduced placental circulation. Women were thus advised to reduce their involvement in activities such as jogging or cycling and to limit their heart rate.However, much change has been witnessed both in the attitude and guidelines on exercise during pregnancy. While the knowledge on exercise physiology is still incomplete, much research has been done on the benefits and risks of exercising during pregnancy. As a result this has come with much specific guidelines on which its success lies. Currently, most authors have thus agreed that the need for exercise by pregnant women can never be neglected.Barakat, R., Starling, R., Lucia, A. (2008). Does exercise training during pregnancy affect gestation age? A randomized controlled trial. An international peer reviewed journal of sports and exercise medicine. Vol. 42, 8, p 674-678.In their study, the scholars noted the controversy that exists over the association between the physical exercise and safety in pregnancy. Their study was aimed at determining the possible cause-effect relationship between regular exercise during the second and third trimester of pregnancy by previously sedentary, healthy gestation age at the moment of delivery (Barakat et al 2008 p. 674).In their methodology, they used the women with singleton gestation for both the research and control experiment. They found out that there were no significant differences between the two categories to have a potential influence on the gestation period (Barakat et al 2008, p. 675). Women were separated using such factors as age, number of hours they could stand standing. They concluded that, previously sedentary healthy woman with single gestation could safely engage in moderate, supervised exercise programs until the end of gestation because it has no effect on the gestation age (Barakat et al 2008, p. 378).Hugo discusses both the benefits of body sculpting training during pregnancy and rules of safety. His work was based on the findings of the past researches that suggest that there is much benefits both to the mother and the and to the future of the new born (Rivera Hugo, 2011, P. 1). He is therefore for the opinion that the adjustment of exercise during pregnancy is vital. However, he warns that the major goal of such exercise should be to maintain ones initial level of fitness and not to improve (Rivera Hugo, 2011, P. 1).He identified several advantages of exercise during pregnancy. These include fastening of the process of recovery after delivery, increase in the sense of well being and self e steem both during and after pregnancy (Rivera Hugo, 2011, P. 1). Exercise also increases the size of the placenta which results into an increase nutrient base for the baby. It also decreases the risk of excessive gaining of weight by reducing the amount of fat storage. Exercise reduces the chances of the occurrence of the lower back pain and boosts the mother’s energy level. Exercise also prepares the body for labor and delivery processes (Rivera Hugo, 2011, P. 1).Hugo noted that the amount of exercise that a specific mother involves herself in should be directly related to how active the mother was before pregnancy (Rivera Hugo, 2011, P. 2). A mother who was never used to exercising should therefore not involve herself intense physical activities such as weight training programs. According to him this may cause stress which would be very dangerous to the mother and the body (Rivera Hugo, 2011, P. 1).He therefore recommended that one who is exercising for the first time should onl y spend duration of between 20 and 30 minutes. She should begin with simple activities such as walking at her normal pace. Walking provides one of the normal and safest forms of exercise and will help the mother not to loose her body balance (Rivera Hugo, 2011, P. 1). This prevents the mother from falling which can be fatal for both the mother and the baby. A beginner should thus avoid vigorous activities such as a dance and kickboxing. According to him, the mothers heart beat rate should not exceed 140 beats per unit during pregnancy. The mother should therefore walk at the normal pace (Rivera Hugo, 2011, P. 1).Hugo also noted that the body temperature of the mother should never exceed 38 degrees Celsius. To ensure such a low temperature, one can besides walking at a normal pace ensure that he chose a place that is neither hot nor humid(Rivera Hugo, 2011, P. 2). One can therefore walk in the morning hours or late in the afternoon. The clothing should also be carefully chosen to avo id warm clothing. It is also advisable to use the non motorized model where the mother is the one to set the pace.Paiger in his contribution noted that exercise is necessary to boost the mother’s mood and give more energy to her while giving the baby a healthy life. He stressed the need for the consultation of a doctor to clear her for any kind of exercise (Waehner Paige, 2010, p. 1). He noted that each woman’s situation should be treated as unique. According to the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists the beginners should take 30 minutes of moderate exercise most days of the week. According to him, women would also have an upper hand if they choose activities that they enjoy (Waehner Paige. 2010, p. 1).He added to Hugo’s option of walking, other activities such as swimming, cycling and aerobics as necessary during pregnancy. Swimming enables the mother to get a total body workout while being supported by the water. Cycling while ensuring she maintains the bala nce. One can use a stationery bike or recumbent bike. Aerobics can be in the form of water aerobics or low-impact cardio classes (Waehner Paige. 2010, p. 1). He also advices that in whatever activity one chooses, it is important for them to first warm up with an easy pace for at least 5 minutes then work at a moderate pace for a few convenient minutes. The time can then gradually be increased. He noted that a break from exercise is necessary whenever a pregnant mother experiences sickness, exhaustion or achy (Waehner Paige. 2010, p. 1). During such moments the mother should resort to what feels right for her body.Contributing on strength training, he stressed that a lighter weight is necessary. According to him, mothers should also carefully monitor their form to adapt to the changes in their centre of gravity. He also recommended that during the second trimester the mother should avoid supine positions like bench presses or crunches. She should instead employ more use of easily con trolled machine (Waehner Paige. 2010, p. 1).She wrote about Prenatal Health Safety. She noted the need for women to consult with the doctor before beginning any exercise and incases of signs of any health complication. Such condition include respiratory condition, diabetes, hypertension, history of premature labor and incase the mother has any physical impairment (Eden Elizabeth, 2006, p. 1).She discussed appropriate clothing for pregnant women. She recommended loose-fittings during the excise. The materials chosen should be able to keep away moisture to enable the mother to remain dry and cool (Eden Elizabeth, 2006, p. 1). Mothers should also wear a good support bra which maximizes comfort and minimizes bouncing during the exercise. A part from bra, pregnant women should wear appropriate shoes. The shoes should be able to provide the mother with the necessary arch supports, heel cushioning and appropriate lateral support (Eden Elizabeth, 2006, p. 1).Eden also gave contribution on h ow to make exercise safe and effective for the mother. She noted that each woman should strive to know when they are either under-working or over- working their heart (Eden Elizabeth, 2006, p. 1). According to her, all these situations should be avoided. Under working of the heart denies a woman an ability to build endurance while overworking it may lead to dizziness, nausea or even fainting (Eden Elizabeth, 2006, p. 1). Commenting on the nutrition requirements, Eden advised that during pregnancy there diet should be rich in carbohydrates. The mother should also take much fluid before during and after the exercise (Eden Elizabeth, 2006, p. 1).Directions for future researchBarakat and her colleagues revealed the controversy that has arisen on the amount of physical exercise that is necessary during the second trimester of the pregnancy. Some scholars are opposed to activities that require prolonged standing and carrying of heavy loads. They say that such activities might result in to preterm delivery or low birth weight. They in turn propose more sedentary activities like office staff (Barakat et al, 2008 p. 674). Most scholars are still of the opinion that the physical activity during pregnancy is beneficial to both the mother and the fetus to prevent maternal disorders such as hypertension.They however note that the effect of physical exercise during the entire period of pregnancy and its outcome is a long and complicated issue which still requires more research. Lucia remarked that studies on large population samples have failed to show any link between physical activity during pregnancy and the pregnancy outcome. This was especially after her study of the possibility of a linkage between gestation ages, risk of preterm delivery, intrauterine growth (Barakat et al, 2008 p. 674).Another issue for more research is whether there should really be standard recommended exercise duration during pregnancy. Some scholars have argued that the duration of the exercise session should be determined by the daily feeling by each mother (Sorace Paul, 2020). The proponents of this argument have noted that during the first trimester fatigue is very common with the beginning of the formation of the baby’s form. They recommended a reduction in exercise activities at this stage of pregnancy. With the energy levels said to be different with each trimester, more research needs to be done on the recommended level of exercise at each stage (Sorace Paul, 2020).Practical implications of the researchPractically, every mother has a role to understand the need to exercise in order to maintain both her health and fitness. The mother’s actions during pregnancy can therefore result into much benefits or bring her complications. The first issue that calls for action is that of weight before, during and after pregnancy. Excess weight gain and failure to loose it six months postpartum are indicators of long term obesity. This may result from lack of enough exercise d uring the pregnancy period (Sorace Paul, 2020, p.1).The second issue concerns the risks that accompany exercise. This requires that a woman seeks an approval from a physician before starting an exercise program (Sorace Paul, 2020, p. 1). The risks that require the intervention of the physician include; low blood pressure (hypoglycemia), fatigue, and muscoskeletal injuries. Other forms of risk may be hyperthermia and decrease in flow of blood into the uterus which put the baby at risk. Any of this signs therefore requires the mother to stop exercising and follow the recommended guidelines for exercise mode, frequency, intensity and duration (Sorace Paul, 2020, p. 1).Other exercise warning signs during pregnancy include; vaginal bleeding, dizziness, headache, chest pain, muscle weakness, swellings, preterm labor, decreased fetal movement. Others are shortness of breath prior to the exercise and the leakage of the amniotic fluid. Women who have cardiac disease or a restrictive lung dis ease may also not be able to exercise (Sorace Paul, 2020, p.1).The popular exercise modes for pregnant women are walking, stationery cycling and swimming. Women should also use up to moderate weights. This should be done repeatedly to help maintain their muscle function. Women who were not initially participated in resistance training should also weight until postpartum to begin (Sorace Paul, 2020, p. 1). They should not be engaged in activities such as basketball and racquet sports. Such activities may cause excess strain the muscles and increase the risk to the baby. Therefore all such high impact activities should be avoided noting that the ligaments and joints become more lax and mobile during pregnancy (Sorace Paul, 2020, p. 1).During the second trimester, any back leaning should be avoided. At this stage the baby increase in weight faster and subsequently causing the increase in the mother’s weight. The third trimester is accompanied by alterations in the mother’s centre o f gravity and balance which requires that she limits her involvement in aerobic exercise. The recommended activities during this trimester are walking and swimming (Sorace Paul, 2020, p. 1). The mothers should also be weary of their exercise intensity. It increases blood flow to the muscles which could in turn decrease the blood flow the baby. This results into less oxygen available to the baby.Another area of the practical implication of this research is in the nutrition requirements. Sorace has noted that each mother exercising during pregnancy should take an additional of at least 300 calories per day (Sorace Paul, 2020, p. 1). This will ensure the mother has an additional energy required and the normal growth of the body. The food should be rich in carbohydrates and accompanied with much fluids before during and after the exercise.ConclusionFrom this study, excise is widely recommended amongst the doctors and the scholars. There are many benefits which come with excise during pr egnancy. Even previously inactive women can safely engage in exercise program after being cleared by a doctor. However, the women must learn to follow the recommended guidelines to ensure the effectiveness of the exercise in maintaining health and fitness while minimizing exercise risks.The level of exercise requirement differs with each trimester of pregnancy. The first stage when the child acquires the form is accompanied by fatigue and requires that one reduce the level of involvement in exercising. This differs with other trimesters. The success of exercise therefore depends on the knowledge level of the mother and thus need for doctor consultation.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Massive Open Online Courses - 1349 Words

MOOC is an acronym for â€Å"massive open online course†; these MOOCs have had a far-reaching influence on the way education is perceived today. For the moment, MOOCs are almost always free, as students pay no fees to register or take the course. Enrollment is high, ranging anywhere from thousands to hundreds of thousands. While enrollment, and perceived interests may be high, course completion rates are extremely low; frequently, no more than five or ten percent of students who register go on to finish the course. 1 The mission of MOOCs is to increase access to higher education globally, reduce costs and reinvigorate teaching and learning. 2 MOOCs have spread like a wildfire; the number of students taking at least one online class is now†¦show more content†¦5 The missionaries did not see education as an end, but as an aid to the spreading of the gospel. Every schoolchild was expected to become a convert to Christianity, but many parents were opposed. 5 The missionar ies’ prerogative in setting up the Western educational system was purely religious; it will be seen that ulterior motives play a major theme in the education of the child. In the Philippines, as a result of western colonization, indigenous peoples have developed an ideal type of human development in which Western education is core and is identifiable with progress or civilization. 16 They thus perceive indigenous knowledge as obsolete or inferior. Formal education, as promoted by the state, has contributed to the marginalization of indigenous knowledge. 16 Currently in Africa, educational programs typically adopt traditional Western models of education, with an emphasis on math, science, language, and social studies. 11 These programs allocate scarce resources to topics like Greek mythology, prime numbers, or tectonic plate movement—topics that may provide intellectual stimulation, but have little relevance in the lives of impoverished children. 11 While many scholars hold that indigenous education and knowledge has a transformative power that can be used to foster empowerment and justice7, westerners assume that their type of system is best, in every corner of the world. Online higher education is a western education withoutShow MoreRelatedMassive Open Online Courses1029 Words   |  5 Pages Introduction Massive open online courses (MOOCs) is a platform or model where learning or any other content is made available online to any one who is interested to learn or acquire information without having to be physically present in a learning set up.A good number of people have written articles and some have given talks on MOOCs;Among the Contributors include Aaron Barlow, Sià ¢n Bayne, Nick Carbone, Kaitlin Clinnin, Denise K. Comer, Glenna L. Decker, Susan Delagrange, Scott Lloyd DeWittRead MoreMassive Open Online Courses2277 Words   |  10 PagesIntroduction to MOOCs Massive Open Online Courses, or MOOCs, have recently come into the public eye as a topic of interest. Whether as an alternative to traditional education, a way to enhance skills in the work-place, or as a way to make education freely available to everyone, many teachers, institutions and students are currently participating in MOOCs. However, as with any new technology, MOOCs are not yet fully understood, in terms of their impact, quality, and effectiveness. In this vein, theRead MoreMassive Open Online Courses1020 Words   |  4 PagesMassive open online courses (MOOC) were introduced in 2008 by Dave Cormier. The original aim of MOOCs was to open up education and offer free access to University education for as many students as possible. They are generating a considerable attention and high interest from higher education institutions. They are viewed as an extension to current online approaches in terms of access (Hoxby, C 2014). The focus of MOOCs is to provide free, cutting edge education that reduces the cost of UniversityRead MoreMassive Open Online Courses957 Words   |  4 PagesMassive Open Online Courses, shorthanded as MOOCs, are courses that offer the opportunity for students and learners everywhere the chance to take part in an online classroom that often are composed of video lectures, and online assessments. There are no restrictions on who can join the courses providing an incredible accessibility to learning for people all over the world. However, as is common with many central issues, there are a large range of opinions for and against MOOCs. Audrey Watters, aRead MoreMassive Open Online Courses (MOOC)512 Words   |  2 Pagesstudents, taking part in a class at such an elite institution. I choose this course to prepare myself for a course I’ll take when enrolled in Rutgers next semester. This course was one of UCLA distant learning courses (MOOC) offered to adults no prerequisites or experience required. Massive Open Online Course s, MOOC for short are online courses offered by some colleges and Universities mostly tuition free. All MOOC courses are via the internet, but some have a chat room component giving studentsRead MoreWhat Is The Massive Open Online Course?1576 Words   |  7 Pagesdevelopments in the education space within the last several years, with regard to leveraging online spaces, is the advent of the Massive Open Online Course (MOOC). GXM proposes to conduct a pilot MOOC focused on Technology Transfer with one of the Nation’s leading MOOC providers, HarvardX. Harvard will partner with Hyperion Technologies to draw technology from Federal Labs and share it with thousands of online participants in the MOOC to determine alternative avenues for collaboration and transitioningRead MoreAnnotated Bibliography: Current Trends in Technology Based Learning1210 Words   |  5 Pages app learning, open content, massive open online courses (MOOCs), virtual education, video conferencing, Web 2.0, district based e-learning, personal learning environments, blended learning, proctored exams, bundled platforms, cloud computing, object-oriented content, interactive whiteboards, documents cameras, wireless labs, and bring your own device. The first article Massive Open Online Courses: Should Educators Worry? by Gita Bajaj concentrates on Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) and theirRead MoreFriedman Vs Head On The Effectiveness1193 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿ Friedman vs. Head on the Effectiveness of Online Writing *** ----- ----- The Effectiveness of Online Writing Courses (MOOCs) Massive open online courses (MOOCs) are one of the revolutionary trends in education across the world. Many controversies surround it with some education stakeholders viewing it as very costly but of little value. In addition, other critics consider it a cheaper model of teaching especially in higher education (Vimeo, 2014). Cheaper in the sense manyRead MoreMOOCS and the Future of Education Essay502 Words   |  3 Pagesin everyone’s hands, and even wireless internet in business we go to everyday. It doesn’t seem too farfetched now, just like online courses for college students who wish to attend without leaving the comfort of their own home for the price of internet and perhaps a book. As crazy as it sounds, it is completely true and it is becoming a huge hit. Massive Open Online Courses, MOOCS, are a popular up and coming platform in the education community. Various think tanks and academic institutions call MOOCSRead Morefggfg1486 Words   |  6 PagesEDITORIAL Learning about learning and teaching online The Babson Survey Research Group, in partnership with the United States College Board, has just released their tenth annual report on the state of online learning in United States (US) higher education (Allen Seaman, 2013). The report titled, Changing Course: Ten Years of Tracking Online Education in the United States, is part of a series of reports on online learning known as the Sloan Online Survey (see http://www.onlinelearningsurvey

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Reasoning Behind The 19th Amendment Essay example

When the constitution was written, the idea of universal suffrage was too radical for our founding fathers to address. They decided to leave the states with the authority to decide the requirements for voting. (Janda) By allowing the states to decide who voted, the authors had not intended for each states discriminations to prevent the country from maintaining true democracy. However, by not setting up a nationwide regulation, the authors launched the country into a century and a half long fight for freedom and equality for all. White males over the age of 21 were the first to be able to participate in American democracy. Besides some taxpaying or property owning laws, the majority of all working class white males were eligible to vote†¦show more content†¦Neither was very happy with that arrangement which led to the creation of Stantons, Declaration of Principles. This document called for a change in womens current social status in America. The Womans Rights Convention in Syracuse in 1852 introduced one of the most prominent speakers in womens suffrage, Susan B. Anthony. She and Stanton became two of the biggest influences that helped women gain equality. Women activists involved in the movement were called suffragists. The typical woman activist was middle class, and usually unmarried. These were the women who were not afraid to step outside their traditional role in American history. They were becoming frustrated with their status, economically, because they had just watched black slaves gain more rights than they held. Not all states denied women from voting; Wyoming and Colorado gave women the right to vote in 1869 and 1893, respectively. The western states awarded women this right more quickly than other states because the women who pioneered out west were rebelling from the traditional role of women in society. (Janda) The western states were just being created and the founders were, usually, more modern thinkers. Ironically, many women were deeply opposed to women gaining the right to vote. They were comfortable with their positions as socialites, completely dependent on men. Women were considered sub-sets of their husbands, and after marriage they did not have the right to own property, maintain theirShow MoreRelatedWomen s Suffrage Of Women981 Words   |  4 PagesWomen from all over the United States became tired of listening and abiding by the rules that men put in place. Many men thought all women were good for was cooking, cleaning, and caring for the children. When the country went to war women were left behind to take care of everything while the men were gone. This was an eye opener for most women, and that is when they came to the conclusion they were good for more. There was so much women were not allowed to do that men could, and a lot of it could onlyRead MoreEssay about The Untouchables562 Words   |  3 PagesChicago mob and illegal liquor sales. He was six feet tall, 180 pounds. Graduated in the top third of his class in both highschool and at the University of Chicago. Both his parents were from Norway, and he was raised in the traditional way. His reasoning behind writing this book was to tell the inside story of what really happened with the Capone mob. He worked on this book for many years so that people could know his story and what he went through in life. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;This book isRead MoreMy Favorite Case We Went Over In Constitutional Law This1102 Words   |  5 Pages My favorite case we went over in constitutional law this year is Lochner v. New York because of the display of power by the justices joined in the majority and the fervent dissent countering their reasoning. I have described Lochner above in the context of the Commerce clause above but my focus for this question is the case in context of the Substantive due process section of the class. The substantive due process clause deals with the law itself and not the process, substantive rights are protectedRead MorePrayer in Public Schools656 Words   |  3 Pagesclauses are originally applied to the central US government, and the Fourteenth Amendment was extended to scope out the whole entire First Amendment to all levels of government, including state level. Though urging with force the states and the subject schools adopted an equally separate approach to rel igion in schools. This issue of the school prayer was seriously decision in the U.S. since the 1900’s. In the 18th, 19th, and the early 20th centuries, schools locates country usage opened with an oralRead MoreLegal Liberalism Calls For Equality1680 Words   |  7 Pagesprivacy, and criminal defendants’ rights that moved the nation towards equality under the law. At the turn of the 19th century, the Louisiana state legislature abridged the rights and immunities of white American butchers in respect to their rights and freedoms as U.S. Citizens. The slaughterhouse cases are considered to have annihilated the privilege or immunities clause in the 14th amendment. Essentially, Louisiana gave the Crescent City Live Stock Landing and Slaughter House Company a monopoly of theRead MoreEssay on Voting History In The United States of America1539 Words   |  7 Pagesand Native Americans without the same freedom. But for one of these minority groups, voting history was about to change. By the time the 14th Amendment to the constitution was passed in 1866, former slaves and other African Americans were guaranteed citizenship, but their vote only counted as 3/5 of a whole person. Then just three years later, the 15th Amendment was passed and all African Americans and adult male citizens of any race had the right to vote. This advancement was an even bigg er step forRead MoreBrown Vs. Board Of Education1143 Words   |  5 PagesSupreme Court Case that overturned the separate but equal ideology established by the earlier Supreme Court Case Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896). The Plessy vs. Ferguson court case had a profound affect on the social interaction of racial groups in the late 19th to early 20th century causing tension between the two most prominent races within the United States, the Caucasians and the African Americans, which included Hispanics and other non-white citizens. The Supreme Court Case Brown vs. Board of EducationRead MoreThe Issue Of Gun Control Laws1536 Words   |  7 PagesThe United States Constitution says that its Citizens have the right to bear arms. This Amendment, when written had no limitations or constraints, however there seems to be more laws than ever trying to govern or ban the carrying and even ownership of firearms as a whole. Many say that the reasons for the attempt of gun control laws are due to the safety of the public nevertheless if you look at the statistics themselves it shows that armed law bidding citizens stop more violent crime involving andRead MoreWas the Spanish-American War Justified?951 Words   |  4 Pagesin early 1898, an accident which many newspapers wrongly blamed on Spain. The warped versions of these respective events caused a vast majority of citizens to urge Congress and McKinley to push even harder for war because they finally had proper reasoning to declare war and push Spain out. Ironically, these three accusations were made despite the strong efforts to maintain diplomatic relations between the U.S. and Spain. The falsified pieces of â€Å"evidence† of Spain’s belligerence towards America servedRead MoreFree Trade And Open Markets1747 Words   |  7 Pagesfact. Typically, the reasoning behind each protectionist measure can be categorized into six distinct arguments: 1) the â€Å"Infant Industry† argument, 2) the â€Å"Dying In dustry† argument, 3) the â€Å"Developing Government† argument, 4) the â€Å"National Pride† argument, 5) the â€Å"Income Redistribution† argument, and 6) the â€Å"National Defense† argument. Under scrutiny, each of these arguments has strong points and flaws, yet almost every argument has been utilized by the United States as reasoning for protectionism at

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Surah Khaf Free Essays

surah khaf 18:1 to top Sahih International [All] praise is [due] to Allah , who has sent down upon His Servant the Book and has not made therein any deviance. 18:2 to top Sahih International [He has made it] straight, to warn of severe punishment from Him and to give good tidings to the believers who do righteous deeds that they will have a good reward 18:3 to top Sahih International In which they will remain forever 18:4 to top Sahih International And to warn those who say, † Allah has taken a son. 18:5 to top Sahih International They have no knowledge of it, nor had their fathers. We will write a custom essay sample on Surah Khaf or any similar topic only for you Order Now Grave is the word that comes out of their mouths; they speak not except a lie. 18:6 to top Sahih International Then perhaps you would kill yourself through grief over them, [O Muhammad], if they do not believe in this message, [and] out of sorrow. 18:7 to top Sahih International Indeed, We have made that which is on the earth adornment for it that We may test them [as to] which of them is best in deed. 8:8 to top Sahih International And indeed, We will make that which is upon it [into] a barren ground. 18:9 to top Sahih International Or have you thought that the companions of the cave and the inscription were, among Our signs, a wonder? 18:10 to top Sahih International [Mention] when the youths retreated to the cave and said, â€Å"Our Lord, grant us from Yourself mercy and prepare for us from our affair right guidance. â€Å" How to cite Surah Khaf, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Capital Budgeting Process and Decision

Question: Discuss about the Capital Budgeting Process and Decision. Answer: Introduction For any company, success is determined by capital budgeting decisions. This is one of the decisive factors for the failure or success of a company. Financial managers are tasked with perhaps some of the most important decisions that affect the business (Capital Budgeting Valuation, 2013). However, it is important to note that there are several factors that combine to make decisions in capital budgeting these decisions continue for a number of years, thus, the decision makers or the managers are part of this flexible process. Since capital assets must be used when needed, then this makes opportunity a very important consideration in the capital budget. Capital budgeting process is important because expansion of assets implies very large expenditure. Before a company uses a very large amount of money on a project the managers should ensure that the company has sufficient available funds to finance the entire project. Two examples of capital budget decisions (Donovan, 2006). Capital Budgeting Process and Strategic Decisions Information required within the firm may vary in accordance to the level of organizational structure. Senior executives or CEOs decisions are structured less in the sense that there are no situations that are repetitive and subsequently no single solution can be applied; On the other hand, evaluation and assessment criteria and points of view should be known for each situation where the data is accurate and must come from subjective and external in uncertain and risky environments. Since it is not possible to determine and control all the variables or factors that affect a situation, it is that models are sought to represent reality for their analysis in the hope that those decisions made are satisfactory and not optimal decisions within the context of rationality of who They must make decisions (Kalyebara, Islam, n.d.) . Specific and concrete at each level to the lowest levels. The information required in all these decisions represents the point of departure for carrying out action s that will ultimately affect the performance of the organization Capital Structure of the Company The optimal capital structure is that for which the cost of capital is minimal: if the company is financed with this debt / equity ratio, the market value of the company will be maximum. Optimal financing structure e = Debt / Own Resources in practice is difficult to determine. Generally speaking, financing projects whose economic profitability exceeds the cost of the project itself will increase the shareholder's profitability in that difference (depending on the margin between the investment return and the cost of the debt). : It is necessary to see the project independently of the rest of the projects of the company. This approach, however, considers only the explicit cost of debt, that is to say, the derivative of comparing the revenues and disbursements originated by indebtedness. There are other costs apart from the explicit so that it diminishes the profitability of that project or even that it is negative. But the ability to borrow is not unlimited because if we borrow now, we will have to opt for more expensive debt or own financing in the future (Rasmussen, 2003). Therefore, the debt has an implicit cost: to finance itself today with debt, may mean having to give it up in the future. This is related to the formulation of the capital budget according to which the financing of a project has to be studied within the framework of the general and future situation of the company. That is why we speak of the weighted average cost of capital at the time of comparing with the profitability of a project: the project has to be taken into account as integrated into the company and not in isolation. You have to collect all the debts of the company and find the weighted average cost to match. Capital Budget is a tool used to carry out certain cost planning processes for companies, families, businesses, among others, which would produce certain economic benefits with terms stipulated within a year. The capital budget can also be defined as a valued list of projects which may be feasible for the acquisition of new economic benefits, that is to say, for example, when a company makes a capital investment it incurs the current cash outflow and this Expected future benefits, the benefits usually extend for more than a year (Vogt, 2004). Within the Capital budget we can find the following advantages: It supports the development of the procedure and / or purpose. It promotes interaction, communication and help between the areas of the company. They give common sense when making investment proposals. They serve to evaluate and choose a referential point of view. Within the capital budget we can also find the following disadvantages: It does not recognize the value of money over time. Your money recovery process is much slower than agreed. The way the parameter is set against which the recovery period of each project is compared to arrive at a decision (Shah, 2007).The fact that this method has these disadvantages does not mean that one should avoid its use in any circumstance that requires it, this means that they must be taken into account in order to make the best decision. The Advantages and Disadvantages of the capital budget The budget brings a number of advantages to the organization, being a planning tool. They include; Forces to plan the activities to be carried out in relation to the general plans and objectives. It indicates what should be done, who should do it, where it should be done, what resources should be used, and why it should be done (Hornstein, Yeung, 2005). Controls the use of resources, to have the least possible waste. Assign and formalize responsibilities. Help the coordination and cooperation of the people, so that the objectives of the company harmonize with those of its parts. Devises financial needs early in order to get them timely and on time. Allows control, in order to anticipate future changes and adaptations that may be needed and does not cause trauma. Capital Budget and the Operation of the Company The working capital of a company is what allows it to develop its social object, and of the administration that is made of it, it depends that the company grows at a greater or lesser speed, or in the worst case, that its assets are diminished or it leads to the definitive bankruptcy of the company(Nice, 2002). In such a way that the working capital is the basis on which the operation of a company is supported, which is why the importance of its administration will be exposed in this essay, the decisive and definitive one that can be in a business to manage and Budget correctly. Financial Projection and its Risks Most capital budget studies focus on the problems of calculation, analysis and interpretation of risk. One of the most important tasks in preparing a capital budget is to estimate the future cash flows for a project. The forecasts for these are based on estimates of incremental revenues and costs associated with the project (Hornstein, Yeung, 2005). In each investment proposal it is necessary to provide information on the expected future cash flows after taxes. For example, if a company is considering launching a new product that will compete with existing ones, it is not appropriate to express their cash flows based on their estimated sales. It is necessary to take into account the possible "affectation" of existing products; therefore, the estimation of cash flows should be made based on incremental sales. The key is to analyze the situation with the new investment and without it.The most important are incremental cash flows(Nice, 2002). The "sunk" costs should be omitted, the focus is on incremental costs and benefits; the recovery of past costs is of no importance to the project.. It is also important to note that certain costs do not necessarily mean a disbursement of money; it will be necessary to include the opportunity cost in the valuation of the project. The most important application of the cost of capital is the capital budget, in addition to serving to determine the decision or to buy or lease, for the repayment of bonds and in decisions to use debts or stockholders' equity. It is possible to fully fund a company with equity funds, which must be equal to the required return on the stockholders' equity of the company, and must consider their cost of capital from various sources of long-term funds (preferred shares or debt In the long term) and not only the stockholders' equity of the company.. The weighted average cost of capital is calculated as a compound value, made up of the various types of funds you will use, regardless of the specific financing for a project. Capital components are the type of capital companies use to raise funds (debts, preferred shares and common stockholders' equity), any increase in assets is reflected in any of these capital components. The cost of post-tax debt is the interest rate on new debt and is used to calculate the weighted average cost of capital (Baker, English, 2011). Costs components of debt after tax = interest rate - tax savings (interest is deductible), is used because the value of the shares depends on the cash flows after tax. The component cost of preferred shares is also used to calculate the weighted average cost of capital; it is the rate of return that investors require and is equal to dividing the preferred dividend. References Baker, H., English, P. (2011).Capital Budgeting Valuation(1st ed.). Somerset: Wiley. Bierman, H., Smidt, S. (2007).The capital budgeting decision(1st ed.). New York: Routledge. Blackstone, William, and Edward Christian.Commentaries On The Laws Of England. [Place of publication not identified]: [Nabu Press], 2010. Print. Capital Budgeting Valuation. (2013) (1st ed.). Hoboken, N.J. Donovan, S. (2006).Budgeting(1st ed.). Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co. Hornstein, A., Yeung, B. (2005).Essays on the corporate capital budgeting decisions of multinational enterprises(1st ed.). Jacobs, Davina F.A Review Of Capital Budgeting Practices. Washington: International Monetary Fund, 2008. Print. Kalyebara, B., Islam, S.Corporate Governance, Capital Markets, and Capital Budgeting(1st ed.). Nice, D. (2002).Public budgeting(1st ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/ Thomson Learning. Rasmussen, N. (2003).Process improvement for effective budgeting and financial reporting(1st ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley. Shah, A. (2007).Local budgeting(1st ed.). Washington, D.C.: World Bank. Vogt, A. (2004).Capital budgeting and finance(1st ed.). Washington, D.C.: International City/County Management Association.